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In Figure 6 are plotted the experimental results obtained. Vertical axis repre-. The low. Crack propagation was observed at the narrow. Figure 6. Fatigue endurance and crack path for polymeric. Ultrasonic fatigue endurance has been obtained for the. A critical parameter to carry. The Figure 7 shows the fracture surface.

Internal Structure Changes of Nylon 12 in Balloon Forming Process

Some testing specimens present a visible polymeric. These specimens were loaded at highest level: close to. This should be a limit. Polymeric degradation in duced by heat dissipation.


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Temperature effect is observed in the Figure 7 : at the. Ultrasonic fatigue tests were carried. Figure 7. Fracture surface and cooling air localization for. Figure 8. Polymeric degradation at crack propagation path. Figure 6 , only the tendency points. Crack initiation and. The authors are grateful to the University of Michoacan.

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Special mention of gratitude for the CONA-. Mexico City, for the financial support destined to this. Vaz Jr. Applications , Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics. Becker and L. Huang and D. Toughened with Maleated Poly ethyleneoctene Elas-. Liu, I. Pang, L. Shen, S.

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Jia and N. Van Melick and H. Jenkins, J. Snodgrass, A. Chesterman, R. Dauskardt and J. All rights reserved. Materials Sciences and Applicatio ns , , 2, doi Email: dalmaraz umich. Special attention was devoted to the tempera- ture control in order to avoid physic-chemical transformati on of this low melting point material. Under ultrasonic fa- tigue tests , important heat dissipation takes place at the narrow section of hourglass shape specimen leading to high temperature at this zone.

The specimen was calculated to m eet the resonance condition with the smallest dimensions at its narrow section , with aim to reduce the temperature gradient at this zone of this non heat conducting material. Experimental results are analyzed together with the fracture surfaces and conclusions are presented concerning the ultrasonic fatigue endurance of this polymeric material.

Plastic material Ny- lon 6 is a cast nylon polyamide with good wear resis- tance, coupled with high tensile strength and modulus of elasticity. In addition, nylon polyamides can with- stand sustained contact with a wide variety of chemicals, alkalis, dilute acids or oxidizing agents. Industrial applications of this plastic material, among others, include: food contact parts, wheels, gears, custom parts, textile fibers, electric parts, industrial cords, car- pets, bushings, ropes, slippers, pulleys, etc. Specimen, Material and Testing 2. Specimen The specimen profile for the ultrasonic fatigue tests of plastic material Nylon 6 was obtained by numerical simulation fitting the resonance condition and taking into account the physical properties, particularly its low heat dissipation coefficient.

Figure 1 a shows the dimension of testing specimen; R 1 is small in order to reduce the temperature gradient at this section, generated by ultra- sonic fatigue tests in this low heat dissipation material. Specimen dimensions mm a , natural frequency obtained by Finite Element Method b. This fre- quency was close to excitation frequency of the system 20 KHz in order to fit the resonance condition. Material Nylon 6 begins as pure caprolactam with 6 carbon atoms; this is the origin of name Nylon Haze is defined as the part of light that deviates from the directly transmitted light at an angle higher than 2.

The thickness of the films was measured with a surface profilometer. The beam size was 1. Here, q xy q z is a component of the diffraction vector in plane out-of-plane to the sample surface. Solid-state NMR measurements were performed with a 2. All measurements were taken at MAS speeds of 25 kHz. Chemical shifts were referenced to tetramethylsilane using the CH 3 group of l -alanine with the 1 H peak at 1.

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The capacitors were fabricated on a glass substrate on which nm-thick Au bottom electrodes with a 1-nm Cr adhesion layer were thermally evaporated using a shadow mask. After deposition of thin film, gold top electrodes 50 nm were deposited using shadow mask to form a crossbar pattern with the device area of 0. For the free-standing MQS thick film, capacitors were fabricated by thermal evaporation of gold 50 nm on both sides with the device area of 0. D - E hysteresis loops were measured using a Radiant precision multiferroic test system Radiant Technologies Inc.

Internal Structure Changes of Nylon 12 in Balloon Forming Process

Data retention and polarization fatigue were measured using the same setup. The fatigue test was performed using a continuous triangular waveform with the amplitude of 1. After a predefined number of cycles, the remanent polarization was determined by PUND positive up negative down measurement using ms-wide pulses.

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For data retention, a write pulse is followed by two read pulses of the same amplitude but opposite direction. All pulse widths were fixed at 10 ms. A bipolar triangular waveform at 10 Hz was applied at room temperature to the samples to study the D - E hysteresis loop. As can be seen from fig. The figure below the D - E loop shows the current density curve.

The values of P r and E c are in good agreement with the literature values 3 , Carbon measurements of the mixture show some additional carbonyl signals compared to pure acetone- d 6. The exchange of hydrogen and deuterium can be easily explained via the keto-enol tautomerism, in which all deuterium in acetone- d 6 can be substituted with the protons coming from TFA fig. The two different diffusion measurements show no change in the diffusion coefficient of the nylon to corroborate that there is no change in the molecular size of the polymer using the TFA:acetone mixture.

To show the optical quality of the films, we performed haze measurements, as shown in fig. S5 for different film thicknesses.


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The SQ thin films however showed substantially lower haze values ranging from 0. By using solution quenching and high evaporation rate of solvent, thin films of high optical qualities were obtained. The spectra for the SQ thin film were shifted vertically for clarity. WAXD measurements were performed both along the parallel and perpendicular to the stretch direction for the MQS film to better resolve the and peaks.

The resulting diffractograms are given in fig. The best fit to the WAXD pattern, as discussed in the main text, was obtained when we placed the peak position of the and reflections at d -spacing of 0.